In total, seven of the 12 shortlisted albums are debut sets from emerging artists, with East India Youth, Kate Tempest and Nick Mulvey also in the running.
The overall winner will be announced at the Mercury Prize awards show on 29 October at the Roundhouse, Camden.
Simon Frith, Mercury Prize chair of judges, said: ‘The 2014 Barclaycard Mercury Prize shortlist confirms that these are fascinating times for UK music.
‘There are seven outstanding debut albums here, and five records by more established artists, all pursuing exciting new directions. What most impressed the judges was the inventive passion with which musicians explore music and emotional possibilities, refusing to be pinned down by rules or genre.’
Last year, James Blake won the award for his sophomore album Overgrown.
Full 2014 nominee list:
Anna Calvi – One Breath
Bombay Bicycle Club: So Long, See You Tomorrow
Damon Albarn: Everyday Robots
East India Youth: Total Strife Forever
FKA Twigs: LP1
GoGo Penguin: v2.0
Kate Tempest: Everybody Down
Nick Mulvey: First Mind
Polar Bear: In Each and Every One
Royal Blood: Royal Blood
Young Fathers: Dead